New Delhi: The Economic Survey 2018-19 tabled in parliament today has identified three key issues that are impacting the adoption of electric vehicles in India — limited availability of charging infrastructure , time delays in charging and battery technology. “The market share of EVs increases with increasing availability of charging infrastructure. This is primarily due to the limited driving range of batteries in the EVs. It, therefore, becomes important that adequate charging stations are made available throughout the road networks. In India, the limited availability of charging infrastructure seems to be a major impediment to increased adoption of EVs,” the survey said. It added that even fast chargers can take around half an hour to charge an electric car while slow chargers could take even 8 hours. It is, therefore, an important policy issue to come up with universal charging standards for the country as a whole to enable increased investment in creation of such infrastructure. “Since the battery is the heart of any EV, development of appropriate battery technologies that can function efficiently in the high temperature conditions in India need to be given utmost importance,” the survey said. According to the document, if India reaches an EV sales penetration of 30 per cent for private cars, 70 per cent for commercial cars, 40 per cent for buses, and 80 per cent for 2 and 3 wheelers by 2030, a saving of 846 million tons of net CO2 emissions and oil savings of 474 MTOE can be achieved. The survey said higher EV penetration also provides an opportunity for India to grow as a manufacturing hub for EVs, provided policies are supportive. India‘s National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020 (NEMMP) was conceived with an objective to achieve sales of 60-70 lakh units of total EVs by 2020. In 2015, the Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric vehicles (FAME) scheme was launched to fast-track the goals of NEMMP with an outlay of Rs 795 crore. The survey said FAME India Phase II has been launched, with effect from 1 April 2019, with a total outlay of Rs 10,000 crore over the period of three years and emphasis in this phase is on electrification of public transportation.